Wednesday, September 17, 2014

What is Enterovirus (EV-D68)?


John Goldman, MD
EV-D68 – What is this and why should we be concerned?
There has been quite a bit of alarming information about Enterovirus (EV-D68) making the news. Several states – including Colorado, Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah and Georgia – have contacted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for help investigating clusters of the virus that’s being blamed for the illness.

Here is the 411 from PinnacleHealth Infectious Disease Specialist, John Goldman, MD.

What are Enteroviruses?
Enteroviruses, which bring on symptoms like a very intense cold, aren’t unusual. They’re actually very common. When you have a bad summer cold, often what you have is an enterovirus. There are more than 100 types of enteroviruses causing about 10 to 15 million infections in the United States each year, according to the CDC. They are carried in the intestinal tract and often spread to other parts of the body. The “cold” season often hits its peak in September, as summer ends and fall begins. The good news is that enteroviruses usually aren’t deadly. While children have been hospitalized, no one has died.

How is EV-D68 different?
This virus is causing more respiratory problems than usual in children. Symptoms are starting like the common cold, but then escalating to wheezing and shortness of breath. Children, who already have respiratory issues such as asthma, are at increased risk of becoming sicker with this virus.

What can parents do?
Enteroviruses spread easily so it could be likely that it will make its way here.

  • The best prevention is good hygiene. Properly wash your hands throughout the day. Consider sending your children to school with hand sanitizer.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces that are regularly touched by different people, such as toys and doorknobs.
  • Avoid shaking hands, kissing, hugging and sharing cups or eating utensils with people who are sick. And stay home if you feel unwell.
  • If you have children with respiratory issues, make sure to have medications, such as inhalers or nebulizers, on hand should they become sick, even if the child has very mild disease and only requires their medications infrequently.

If your child has a cold and begins to wheeze or have shortness of breath, seek medical attention. Use your best parental judgment. If your children are experiencing symptoms, please contact your primary care physician. 

Why aren’t adults getting it?
No one is absolutely sure, but most likely adults have been previously exposed to the virus and have built an immunity to it.

What is the treatment?
There is no antiviral to treat EV-D68. Doctors can offer supportive treatments while the body works to heal itself. Its course is similar to the flu with being very sick for a few days and then fully recovering in a few weeks.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Nature Bites!

Having recently moved to a new house near the State Game Lands I was excited to take my nephews and niece out to explore. Being that it was somewhat chilly I had a long sleeves and long pants. I felt I was pretty protected as we were not going deep into the woods, but instead were staying on a trail that we only followed for a couple hundred yards.  When we got back, I sat down saw a tick run across my leg. Yes, I screamed.  I quickly grabbed a paper towel and scooped it up off my pants leg and promptly disposed of it.  At that point I made sure that everybody that went for the walk (including myself) was thoroughly checked for ticks. Luckily we did not find any more ticks, at least not then.

The next afternoon I happened to look down at my leg and noticed an unusual mark. Upon closer inspection I saw that there were little legs sticking out of it and yes they were squirming. I had a tick attached to me- ewwww!!  I used to be a lab tech so not much throws me but this little bloodsucker actively burrowed in my leg did and I needed to get it out ASAP as I couldn't tolerate the thought of it being attached a minute longer! I quickly got tweezers and extracted the entire tick, head and all, from my leg.  Just in case it was needed, I saved the tick in a container.  I then went and washed to bite wound and my hands thoroughly, just as the instructions I found on the internet said.

Having two friends with Lyme disease really made me concerned about my risk. I knew to look for a bull’s eye rash but didn't really know much else. My first thought was that first thing Monday morning I needed to call my primary care physician to see what they would recommend.  From the primary care standpoint I was grateful that I have a relationship with a primary care office and knew that if I called they would be able to help me, which they did.

On Monday morning I called my primary care office, PinnacleHealth Medical Group, Heritage Family Medicine, not really sure what to expect. After explaining the situation the office wanted me to come in evaluate the tick bite and see if there was any follow-up necessary. I was so fortunate in that they were literally able to get me in within a half an hour.

Dr. Metropoulos at Heritage Medical Group in Lemoyne was wonderful and explained the risks of Lyme Disease based on my case and our options for treatment. We both agreed that a prophylactic course of antibiotics would be the best route for me.

I typically spend a lot of time outdoors and thought I was pretty knowledgeable about healthcare. But this tick bite was definitely a learning experience for me.

I had some pretty big questions throughout this experience. Luckily, within PinnacleHealth we have a number of experts including those in the primary care field and infectious diseases. And consulting with Dr. John Goldman with infectious disease he was able to provide me with some great information answers to my questions.

Dr. Goldman recommends the following safety tips for tick bite prevention.
  • Wear long sleeves and long pants
  • Use insect repellent with DEET
  • Change clothes immediately after coming inside your house
  • Wash clothes promptly

Since all the boxes are unpacked and I am certainly not moving anytime soon, I'm going to have to learn how to live in an area where ticks are prevalent.  I've since stocked up on insect repellent, have made a habit of checking myself frequently for ticks and am looking forward to spending time going for more long walks this summer.


Want your questions regarding tick bites and Lyme Disease answered? Join Dr. Goldman on August 20th at the Camp Hill Giant for a free seminar titled Lyme Disease: What You Should Know. There is no cost to attend but registration is required.  Please call 231-8900 to register. 

Monday, August 4, 2014

Ebola Virus – What You Need to Know


 Blog contributed by
Dr. Joseph Cincotta,
primary care physician
The African Ebola Virus outbreak has been one story that has been a prominent part of recent health-related news.  Although not a new problem for the African continent the most recent outbreak has gotten much more attention as concern has grown about the spread of this virus from rural and more isolated communities to more urban settings, and the concern of its spread to even further places across the globe.

The Ebola virus was first recognized in 1976 in Zaire and since that time there have been a number of outbreaks across different African regions.  The infection currently has a very high mortality rate – 57 to 88%, and there is no vaccination to prevent the infection.  In addition, there is currently no specific anti-viral medication treatment program available to combat the infection once it occurs.  Treatment today is focused on what we call ‘supportive measures’ in an effort to give the patient’s own immune system time to overcome the infection.  Unfortunately, these ‘supportive measures’ are not always successful and patients still succumb to the infection.

The virus is spread by direct person-to-person contact.  This may involve direct contact with an infected patient or direct contact with infected body fluids from that patient.  If exposed, it generally takes about 5 to 7 days to develop symptoms but there are cases where it has taken longer than 2 weeks for symptoms to develop.  This raises the concern of the spread of this virus from one geographic area to another, as patients who are infected but who have no symptoms may travel out of a known area of infection and spread the virus.  As populations become more mobile and less isolated the possibility of spread of the infection is higher and requires more attention to efforts to contain the spread of the virus.

Symptoms of the disease usually start with a rather abrupt onset of fever, chills and tiredness.  These are followed by headache and muscle ache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.  As you will notice, these are very common symptoms for many other infections, and there is nothing specific to indicate an Ebola infection during the early phase.  Thus, the medical team needs to have a high degree of suspicion particularly when working in areas known to be at risk for this infection.  And, for health care workers not in those regions, getting a travel history from patients as part of the routine history when a patient has these symptoms is very important.

Over a period of several days the symptoms often worsen and may involve bleeding from different sites, problems with bruising, and very low blood pressure.

Work is going on to develop a vaccine as well as find medications to treat the infection.  However, efforts to date have been unsuccessful.  For now we need to rely on supportive measures such as IV fluids and nutrition and treating the complications of the disease when they occur.  These measures allow the body time to develop its own antibodies to fight off the infection.

Efforts at prevention involve avoiding travel to areas of known infection , doing your best to avoid sick individuals, and paying attention to good hygiene practices of regular hand-washing.

Monday, July 14, 2014

What is Juvenile Arthritis?

Blog contributed by Kathleen
Zimmerman, MD
Pediatrician
It is estimated that about 300,000 children in the U.S. have some form of juvenile arthritis.  Most people have heard of Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA.  But there are other forms of arthritis as well, including Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), which is the most common form in children.

Most forms of Juvenile Arthritis are autoimmune.  This means that the child’s immune system is attacking their healthy cells.  It is thought that this autoimmune attack may be triggered by a virus and in some cases children have a genetic risk if arthritis is in the family.

Arthritis in children can have different symptoms and these symptoms can come and go for long periods of time.  The most common symptom is constant joint swelling, joint pain, and stiffness.  This may be in one joint or in multiple joints.  Some children are limping or clumsy because of the joint pains.  The pain is often worse in the mornings.  Other symptoms may be high fevers or skin rashes that don’t have another cause.   Children may also have eye inflammation and growth problems.

There is not a single test for Juvenile Arthritis.  Your child’s doctor may suspect arthritis if they have the symptoms above and they do not have an explanation (no recent injury or recent illness) and also if the symptoms do not go away on their own.  If your child was suspected to have Juvenile arthritis they would need a thorough exam of the joints as well as bloodwork. Referral to a Rheumatologist (specialist in arthritis) is typically recommended to help with the diagnosis and treatment. 

Juvenile Arthritis is a chronic illness that comes and goes.  During a “flare”, children may need medication to help control their symptoms. Physical therapy is helpful as well.  If the pain is severe or difficult to treat, stronger medications that suppress the immune system are used to calm the symptoms down and allow the child to live a more normal life.  The goal is for the child to remain active and to have long periods of “remission”, where the symptoms are gone for months to years.   Children with juvenile arthritis may also have “silent” problems with the eyes or growth (without symptoms).  Therefore, it is also important to have regular eye exams and checkups even if they have no symptoms. 

Researchers are working on finding causes of Juvenile arthritis and also researching better medications with fewer side effects.  To learn more about Juvenile Arthritis and the most recent science on these diseases you can go the National Institute of Health site: www.niams.nih.gov and the Arthritis Foundation site: www.arthritis.org






Tuesday, May 27, 2014

May is national Osteoporosis (OP) month

Blog contributed by Renu Joshi, MD,  Endocrinology

Osteo means bones and porosis means holes. As the name suggests we have bone loss which can lead to Bone fractures.

It is a silent disease and does not cause any pain until Fracture occurs.

Did you know that 50-65% of women between 50-75 suffer from Osteopenia / osteoporosis and 50 % of white women will suffer from Fracture due to Osteoporosis.  25 % of patients with hip Fracture will die within the first year. Incidence of Hip fracture is higher than combined Breast cancer, Heart attack and stroke in Females.


Men can also suffer through OP but it starts at age 70 or higher.

While we all get screening for other things the screening for OP still remains very low. A 5-minute screening test for OP is the U/S of the heel, which almost picks up > 70 % cases of OP and it is free.

We as women are always taking care of others but we can be better care taker if we take care of ourselves
SO Be In charge of your health!!!

You can prevent OP by these simple things:
  1. Take 1000 -1500 mg calcium  (diet and supplement combined) daily
  2. Vitamin D at least 800 units daily
  3. Exercise both aerobic and Muscle strengthening (by lifting weights) at least 3 times weekly 
  4. Drink < 3 caffeine beverages (including Coffee and sodas)
  5. Getting screened early after Menopause so treatment can be given appropriately 

  Let’s do it together so we can save Fractures!!!

Monday, May 12, 2014

How to Eat Healthy at Home and at Work


Patients typically tell me about one struggle or the other: “I have a hard time eating healthy at home” or “I have a hard time eating healthy at work”. With obesity on the rise, as a whole we have got to learn to do better at both! I believe the keys to healthy eating are knowledge, discipline and preparation.

Knowledge. Being educated. Being an aware consumer. Knowing how many calories are in food items. Knowing what are healthy choices and what are not.

Discipline. Being determined to eat healthy the majority of the time. Being able to say no to junk food the majority of the time. Choosing unsweetened drinks over sweetened ones.

Preparation. Planning ahead for meals and snacks. Having a list before you go to the grocery store. Not allowing yourself to become too hungry, resulting in binge eating. Having water on hand.

I feel like most people get the first two points, it’s more a matter of applying them. The third point, preparation, is what I want to focus on. Being prepared sets one up for success. Start with a list. What are healthy food items you would like to purchase on your next trip to the grocery store? This list must include variety, snacks, and meals. As far as meals go: The internet holds a plethora of recipes (do people use cook books anymore?! Ok…kidding, but seriously). Try to avoid recipes with white flour/pasta, the word “fried”, and cream sauces/a lot of cheese.  And when you find those tasty, healthy recipes…make extras! Then you have leftovers for work! I try to avoid casseroles and make soups (broth-based) or stir-fries instead.
When you get home from the grocery store, rinse and prepare whatever you can. Cut celery sticks. Wash lettuce and prepare veggies for easy salads. Cut up fruits that need it. Put snack items into baggies/containers. Hard-boil eggs. Get the junk food out of the house. If it’s not there, it can’t be consumed!

Get your lunch/snacks ready for work the night before. If you plan for your meals, you are less likely to grab unhealthy food on a whim. May I suggest salads in a jar: dressing on the bottom, other items such as low-fat cheese/egg/chicken/nuts/seeds/fruit/other veggies next, then lettuce on the top. When you are ready to eat, just turn it onto a plate and the dressing is on the top and nothing is soggy. Another idea is  fruit and yogurt parfaits with plain yogurt (check out how many grams of sugar are in flavored yogurt!). Use fruit as your sweetener and add some low-sugar granola, oats, or nuts. Be careful of cereal, flavored oatmeal and bars, as they often contain high amounts of sugar!

At home, I make a baked oatmeal, bran muffins or quiche weekly. That way there is always something in the fridge to grab for breakfast that is healthy. I use very little to no sugar in my recipes and add lots of extras: fruit, cinnamon, nuts, etc. I load up the quiche with veggies and omit the crust. These are also good options for lunch or a snack at work.  It is also helpful to have nuts, carrot sticks, or an apple in the car to keep you from making a stop for some less-nutritious choices.


And one last point: choose foods that will fill you and not leave you hungry soon after. Protein and healthy fats (like nuts and avocados) can really help with satisfaction. 

Friday, May 2, 2014

Why are we seeing Measles again?

Blog contributed by Kathleen Zimmerman, MD,  Pediatrician

In recent news there have been a multitude of stories on increasing outbreaks of measles.   Measles was almost eradicated by the year 2000, so why are we seeing measles again?

Measles is spread by a very contagious virus.  The virus is spread as easily as influenza virus.  Therefore once a case comes into a community, it quickly spreads to those who have not been vaccinated. Widespread vaccination against measles creates “ herd immunity”.   This is the best protection a community can have from measles outbreaks.  Herd immunity stops isolated cases of measles from spreading into an epidemic.

Vaccination rates have declined in certain areas of the United States and these are the areas that have “holes” in the herd immunity and these are the communities that are having increasing outbreaks of measles.   California’s cases went up from 4 last year to 58 as of this month (and will be higher by the time you see this blog).

Vaccination refusal and delays are most commonly due to misconceptions about vaccine safety.  Also many young parents have never seen measles before and they do not understand that just 50 years ago there were 500,000 Americans infected with measles per year with 48,000 hospitalizations and 500 deaths each year.   The near eradication of this deadly disease 14 years ago was achieved by vaccination.  The return of this disease in exponential numbers is occurring because of vaccine refusal.

It’s important for parents to realize that when they refuse or delay vaccines for their child, they are not only putting their own child at risk, but also their whole community.   This couldn't be exemplified more clearly than in what we are seeing unfold in our country with the current measles outbreaks.